Archive for January, 2012

Maybe this is why developers don’t care much about testing

Monday, January 2nd, 2012

I’m a huge fan of TDD, and one thing that is really frustrating is when I’m working with people who either don’t know how to write unit tests or don’t agree with the idea of writing unit tests. This is especially true in a static language because those people will design the code in a way that prevents me from writing tests.

Why is it that so many developers don’t care about testing? Most developers that I’ve worked with, whether I agree with their ideas or not, take pride in their work and generally care about their job.

I think that this goes back to the traditional divide between development teams and QA teams. On most teams, there is always pressure to get things done faster. In order to get things done faster, you have to either cut something out or get better at what you do. It’s much easier to cut something out, so inevitably the team will do what they can to cut development time. This means cutting out unit testing (or not taking the time to do it in the first place). Once you cut out unit testing, the next thing you throw out is good design principles and just get it done as fast as possible.

We all know that if you don’t write unit tests and you just throw in spaghetti code to get something done that you’re going to have a lot more bugs. It takes time for QA people to find bugs, reproduce bugs, write up bugs, and retest bugs. But why should the development team care? They were just told to go faster. Who cares how long it takes the QA team to test the application? Why does the development team care if it takes an inordinate amount of time to regression test the application?

The QA team knows what is going on, so they don’t trust the developers. They know that the developers are likely to write bugs, so they will need to be more thorough. The problem is that sometimes this means doing an inordinate amount of manual testing (which may or may not be possible).

This is what happens when development and QA are separate teams that don’t work closely together. Each one is only looking out for their own interests, not the interest of the project as a whole. In my opinion, it makes no sense to do it this way, but this how it’s done in many companies.

On my current project, we have broken down the walls. The QA team and the development team report to the same manager. The developers, BAs, and QAs sit together in the same area. Before we work on a feature, we all sit down together and decide what will be tested with unit tests, what will be tested with automated acceptance tests, and what will be manually tested. Because we’re all on the same team, I (as a developer) care about testing just as much as anyone else on the team. There’s no reason for me to not care about testing. Don’t I want the app to work too? If I write crappy code, it’s going to take longer for the team to get things done. If I don’t help automate regression testing, it’s going to take the team longer to manually test everything. I don’t want either of these, so I’m going to help out. The QA team is starting to realize that they can trust our automated tests (which they’re not used to), and we all agree that in the future they will do much less manual testing.

Because we’re on the same team, we’ve enabled developers to care about testing. If we want to get things done faster, I want to make sure that I automate as many tests as possible so that QA doesn’t have to manually test them. I might even pitch in to help with manual testing when that time comes. In the end, we end up with high quality software delivered in less time because we have very few bugs and we will test things in the most efficient way possible.

Why do we group our tests by file?

Monday, January 2nd, 2012

Most people I know put their unit tests in files that mirror the folder structure and filename of the actual class that is being tested. So if I have app/models/order.rb, I’ll have spec/models/order_spec.rb. The tests in the order_spec.rb file will test the code in the order.rb file. Every project I have been on, whether Ruby or .NET, has done it this way.

But have you ever thought about why we do it this way?

We do it this way on our project and I keep running into two problems. The first problem is when I am about to modify some existing code and I want to know what tests will test that portion of the code. The first place I look is the corresponding test file (based on the folder structure or filename), but that doesn’t always give me all of the tests for that functionality.

The second problem is when I refactor some existing code and the refactoring spans multiple classes. Now I have broken tests all over the place and it’s hard to reconstruct the tests so that they test the same business concepts that they were testing before. Often times the tests were testing a portion of the system of classes that I am refactoring, but were not as encompassing as they should’ve been.

Here’s the thing — when I write tests, I’m typically using the Given/When/Then style of writing tests, even in unit tests using frameworks like RSpec. I’ll have test code that looks like this:

describe "When completing an order" do
  it "should set the status to In Process" do
     # test code here

That code tests functionality having to do with orders and is going to help me ensure that my code performs some business function correctly. But if you look at that code snippet, you don’t know what classes I’m testing. Yeah I know, it’s just an example and I left out those details. But the point is that it doesn’t matter what classes I’m testing. What matters is that my tests are testing that my code performs a certain business function.

That being said, why are we grouping our tests by file? Wouldn’t it make much more sense to group our tests by business function instead?

I already have ways to find tests for a given class. I can search my code for the class name, or if I’m in .NET I can do Find Usages and have a little window pop up that tells me everywhere a class (or method) is used.

If my classes were grouped in folders by business function instead, I get the following benefits:

  • I can see what tests exist for a given business function
  • It encourages me to write tests that test business functionality, not test data structures (classes, methods, etc.)
  • I can put all kinds of tests in there (unit tests, Cucumber tests, even manual test plans) — all in one place, all checked into source control
  • My tests document business functionality instead of documenting a class

Remember, code constructs like classes and methods are just a means to an end, our goal is to write software that provides business value and performs specific functions. So I might as well organize my tests accordingly.

(Disclaimer: I have never actually tried organizing tests this way. It makes sense to me and I think it would work great, but I might try it and find out that it doesn’t work. But if anything, maybe I’ll start a good discussion.)